By E. Umbrak. Michigan Jewish Institute. 2018.
For most patients 20mg tadalis sx amex, a low dose of the initial drug of choice should be admin- istered slowly discount tadalis sx 20 mg mastercard, titrating upward at a schedule dependent on the patient’s age, needs, and responses. The target blood pressure typically is 135/85 mm Hg, unless the patient has diabetes or renal disease, in which case the target would be lower than 130/80 mm Hg. A long-acting formulation that pro- vides 24-hour efficacy is preferred over short-acting agents for better compliance and more consistent blood pressure control. Because they are associated with a decrease in mortality in all types of patients, thiazide diuretics should be considered in all patients with hypertension who do not have compelling contraindications to this class of drugs. Both thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers should be used first in patents with uncomplicated hypertension, unless there are specific compelling indications to use other drugs. It is critical to tailor the treatment to the patient’s personal, financial, lifestyle, and medical factors, and to periodically review compliance and adverse effects. Selected Causes of Secondary Hypertension The most common cause of secondary hypertension is renal disease (renal parenchymal or renal vascular). Renal artery stenosis is caused by athero- sclerotic disease with hemodynamically significant blockage of the renal artery in older patients or by fibromuscular dysplasia in younger adults. The clinician must have a high index of suspicion, and further testing may be indicated, for instance, in an individual with diffuse atherosclerotic disease. Potassium level may be low or borderline low in patients with renal artery stenosis caused by second- ary hyperaldosteronism. A captopril-enhanced radionuclide renal scan often is helpful in establishing the diagnosis; other diagnostic tools include mag- netic resonance angiography and spiral computed tomography. The classic clinical findings are positive family history of polycystic kidney disease, bilateral flank masses, flank pain, elevated blood pressure, and hematuria. Other causes of secondary hypertension include primary hyperaldosteronism, which typically will cause hypertension and hypokalemia. Anabolic steroids, sym- pathomimetic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and illicit drugs, such as cocaine, as well as licit ones, such as caffeine and tobacco, are included in possible secondary causes of hypertension. The cause of obstructive sleep apnea is a critical narrowing of the upper air- way that occurs when the resistance of the upper airway musculature fails against the negative pressure generated by inspiration. In most patients, this is a result of a reduced airway size that is congenital or perhaps complicated by obesity. These patients frequently become hypoxic and hypercarbic multi- ple times during sleep, which, among other things, eventually can lead to sys- temic vasoconstriction, systolic hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. The patient will have a widened pulse pressure with increased systolic blood pressure and decreased diastolic blood pressure, as well as a hyperdynamic precordium. Glucocorticoid excess states, including Cushing syndrome, and iatro- genic (treatment with glucocorticoids) states usually present with, thinning of the extremities with truncal obesity, round moon face, supraclavicular fat pad, purple striae, acne, and possible psychiatric symptoms. An excess of corticosteroids can cause secondary hypertension because many glucocorti- coid hormones have mineralocorticoid activity. Dexamethasone suppression testing of the serum cortisol level aids in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital narrowing of the aortic lumen and usually is diagnosed in younger patients by finding hypertension along with discordant upper and lower extremity blood pressures. Coarctation of the aorta can cause leg claudication, cold extremities, and diminished or absence of femoral pulses as a result of decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities. Carcinoid tumors arise from the enterochromaffin cells located in the gastrointestinal tract and in the lungs. Clinical manifestations include cutaneous flushing, headache, diarrhea, and bronchial construction with wheezing. Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-releasing tumor that typically pro- duces hypertension. Clinical manifestations include headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, and chest pain. Other symptoms include anxiety, nervousness, tremor, pallor, malaise, and, occasionally nausea and/or vomiting. Thus, in the evaluation of newly diagnosed hypertension, orthostatic blood pressure measurements may be helpful. Which of the following would most likely provide prognostic information regarding this patient? Which of the following antihypertensive agents are generally considered first- line agents for this individual? The central obesity, abdominal striae, hirsutism, and easy bruis- ability are consistent with Cushing syndrome, a disease of adrenal steroid overproduction. Prognosis in hypertension depends on the patient’s other cardio- vascular risks and observed end-organ effects from the hypertension. Thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers are generally considered first-line agents for uncomplicated hypertension because of their effect in reducing cardiovascular mortality and their cost-effectiveness. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
Annual percentage change in mortality from stroke in men (left) and women (right) aged 35–74 years in selected countries during the entire study period tadalis sx 20 mg line, 1968–1994 cheap 20mg tadalis sx otc. There are several issues related to the occurrence of Mortality from stroke was highest in the world in stroke that are important from an epidemiological Finland in the 1970s, together with Japan. While it would be useful There are few studies with validated data from to know the incidence (occurrence of first stroke stroke registers or other sources. The incidence of events), in most populations data may be available stroke has declined sharply in Finland during the on mortality from stroke only, but not on non-fatal last decades , and in 1998 it was 241/100 000, not events. The case fatality at the stroke event, usually far from other Western industrialized countries, determined as the proportion of deaths occurring after a steady fall of about 3% per year throughout during the first 4 weeks after the onset of stroke event, the 15 years studied. Mortality from stroke declined gives information about the severity of stroke and even more steeply, around 4% per year, with a may also reflect the efficacy of early management of standardized mortality rate in 1998 of 50/100 000 acute stroke. The relative frequency of different sub- among men and 30/100 000 among women . Denmark , have reported no fall in stroke Chapter 5: Basic epidemiology of stroke and risk assessment incidence, while an increase in the incidence in the nine western European populations, stroke of stroke has been observed in Eastern Europe and mortality declined. In Shanghai, China, almost no Changes in incidence and improved survival on decline in incidence of stroke but a clear decline in the downward trend in stroke mortality are not easy stroke mortality was reported . The differences to quantify, due to the difficulty of measuring accu- observed between countries in mortality rates, and rately the incidence of stroke. Overall, the case In many epidemiological studies strokes have been fatality was high in all eastern European countries. In women, the difference in case fatality of stroke Definitions by clinical means alone can be impre- between populations was larger than in men, ranging cise and sometimes misleading. On Trends in stroke event rates, case fatality a global scale, stroke is the second most frequent cause of mortality world-wide and a leading cause and mortality of stroke of disability. Stroke event rates declined Risk factors in nine of 14 populations in men and eight of Stroke has a multifactorial origin and a plethora of 14 populations in women. In men, the case fatality putative and confirmed risk factors have been listed of stroke declined in seven populations, increased and tested in various types of studies. Among of the global epidemiology is severely hindered by the women, a decline in case fatality was seen in eight lack of any kind of data on stroke occurrence and risk populations, no obvious change was seen in three, and factors in most populations in the world. The trends in case over 65% of all deaths due to stroke occur in develop- fatality were statistically significant among men in ing countries, studies of stroke epidemiology in these only two populations with declining trends and in populations hardly exist. Among women, there The American Heart Association Stroke Council’s was a significant downward trend in four populations. Of the 14 populations, stroke mortality posed recommendations for the reduction of stroke declined in eight populations among men and risk . Stroke mortality reviews published during 2001 to January 2005, refer- increased in all the eastern European populations ence to previously published guidelines, personal files 79 except in Warsaw, Poland. In Beijing, China and and expert opinions to summarize existing evidence Section 2: Clinical epidemiology and risk factors Table 5. Risk factors or risk markers for a hormone therapy, poor diet, physical inactivity and first stroke were classified according to their potential obesity and central body fat distribution. Less well- for modification (non-modifiable, modifiable, or documented or potentially modifiable risk factors potentially modifiable) and strength of evidence (well- include the metabolic syndrome, alcohol abuse, documented or less well-documented). Non-modifiable drug abuse, oral contraceptive use, sleep-disordered risk factors include age, sex, low birth weight, race/ breathing, migraine headache, hyperhomocysteinemia, ethnicity and genetic factors. Well-documented and elevated lipoprotein(a), elevated lipoprotein-associated modifiable risk factors include hypertension, exposure phospholipase, hypercoagulability, inflammation and to cigarette smoke, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and cer- infection. This paper represents probably the most thor- tain other cardiac conditions, dyslipidemia, carotid ough assessment of the prediction and potential for the 81 artery stenosis, sickle-cell disease, postmenopausal prevention of stroke. Section 2: Clinical epidemiology and risk factors Non-modifiable risk factors of stroke Overall lifestyle patterns Age is probably the most important determinant of and stroke risk stroke; the risk of stroke doubles for each successive Recently, in the analysis of the data from the Health decade after age 55 years [16, 17]. Stroke is a common and the burden of stroke that may be attributed to disease in both men and women, but it is more common these unhealthy lifestyle choices was calculated . Diet and other lifestyle factors were updated from self- Racial or ethnic specific stroke risk is difficult to reported questionnaires. It is 54% of ischemic stroke cases were attributable to lack not necessarily “stroke genes” that are behind this of adherence to a low-risk lifestyle, and among men familial aggregation, but one or more of the mecha- the corresponding proportions were 35% and 52%, nisms may contribute to it such as (i) familial occur- respectively. Low-risk lifestyle was not significantly rence of risk factors for stroke, (ii) genetic associated with risk of hemorrhagic stroke, nor was it susceptibility to these risk factors, (iii) familial in the Women’s Health Study . Other studies have sharing of environmental/lifestyle factors associated also evaluated joint effects of multiple lifestyle-related with stroke and (iv) the interaction between genetic risk profiles on stroke risk. Currently, rapid dam study, almost 60% of ischemic stroke cases could advances in genetic research are taking place and have be attributed to hypertension, diabetes, hypercholes- resulted in the identification of genes associated with terolemia, smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption stroke and its subtypes. Low birth weight is another (>15 g alcohol/day in women, >30 g alcohol/day in risk factor for stroke [29, 30], as it is for cardiovas- men) . Although these risk factors defined as cholesterol <200 mg/dl, blood pressure themselves cannot be modified, it does not mean <120/80 mmHg, and not smoking, was associated that the stroke risk in such individuals could not be with 52% to 76% lower risk of total stroke mortality modified. In the Women’s Health Study, women with the attention to the control of modifiable risk factors.
Epidemics within the hos- • Discuss the treatment of actinomycosis and nocardiosis pital environment are rare discount tadalis sx 20mg visa, and person-to- person infection in the lung transmission has only rarely been suggested tadalis sx 20 mg with visa. High-dose corticosteroids, cytomega- lovirus infection in the past 6 months, and high calcineurin inhibitor levels (cyclosporine or tacro- Unusual Lung Infections limus) are independent risk factors for Nocar- dia infection in organ transplant recipients. Pulmonary ciated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, myco- infection is increasingly seen in immunosup- bacterial diseases, and chronic granulomatous pressed patients, particularly those with defects in disease. The disease has been reported world- organisms reveal delicate branching ﬁlamentous wide and is more common in men than women forms that are Gram-positive and usually acid fast (approximately 3:1). Other species known to cause human often is associated with metastatic spread, infection are Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis and Nocar- especially to the brain (in up to one third of cases). Nod- the sputum in a non-immunosuppressed patient ules, either single or multiple, may be confused without radiographic abnormalities may repre- with metastatic carcinoma. However, a sputum culture that radiographic manifestation is cavitation, which is is positive for Nocardia in an immunosuppressed found in both consolidations and nodules. The nonspeciﬁc features make diagno- ﬁsoxazole, 6 to 8 g/d, then decreasing to 4 g/d as sis challenging, and the disease often is not sus- the disease is controlled). Nocardial pneumonia is an alternative choice for an oral medication in is the most common respiratory tract presenta- those patients who have sulfa allergies. Although the clinical course may be acute mens include amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, in immunosuppressed patients, typically the ceftizoxime, and imipenem. However, the high cost sputum, occasional blood-streaked sputum, night and serious potential toxicities currently relegate sweats, and pleuritic pain are the most common. Because of the risk Superior vena caval syndrome, mediastinitis, and of relapse, patients who have intact host defenses pericarditis have been reported from direct spread are generally treated for 6 to 12 months, whereas from the lungs. As noted previously, nocardiosis drainage should be considered for patients with has the propensity for dissemination to the brain, brain abscesses, empyema, and subcutaneous but other extrapulmonary sites include the skin, abscesses. Actinomycosis is a slowly progressive infec- Blood cultures require incubation aerobically for tious disease that is caused by anaerobic or micro- up to 4 weeks. The word actinomycosis is derived nopathy, bronchiectasis within the consolidation, from the Greek terms aktino (the radiating appear- and localized pleural thickening and/or effu- ance of the sulphur granule) and mykos (mycotic sion. The classic clinical picture is a cervicofa- lung abscess may develop, and the inﬁltrate may cial disease in which the patient presents with a extend into the pleura with an associated empy- large mass on the jaw. Actinomycosis also can present as and frequently are found in dental caries and at an endobronchial infection, which is often asso- the gingival margins of persons with poor oral ciated with a broncholith or other foreign body. Because these granules Clinical Manifestations: Actinomyces most com- are yellow, they are often called sulfur granules, monly presents as a disease of the cervicofacial although they contain minimal amounts of sulfa. The peak incidence The initial manifestations include a nonproductive is reported in the fourth and ﬁfth decades of life; cough and low-grade fever, subsequently followed nearly all series have reported a male predomi- by a productive cough, which can be associated nance (3:1). The presentation of pulmonary actinomyco- Diagnosis: A diagnosis of actinomycosis is sis has changed in recent years to a less aggressive rarely suspected; in one series, it was suspected infection, which is likely related to improved oral on hospital admission in 7% of the patients in hygiene and increased use of penicillins, even whom it was ultimately diagnosed. Because of acute pulmonary actinomycosis consists of air- these organisms are normal oropharyngeal ﬂora, space consolidation, commonly in the periphery isolation in specimens of sputum or bronchial of the lung and often in the lower lung ﬁelds. Actinomyces are fastidi- airspace consolidation containing necrotic low- ous bacteria that are difﬁcult to culture and, thus, attenuation areas with frequent cavity formation. Patients with not diagnostic unless endobronchial disease is bulky disease should probably not receive short present, and samples must be obtained anaerobi- courses of therapy unless surgical debulking is cally with a protected specimen brush and deliv- also performed. Treatment: Untreated, actinomycosis is ulti- Bronchiectasis is a syndrome, with many mately fatal, but early treatment can result in cure underlying etiologies and associations, that has rates of 90%. Whether patients should be treated for the Classifcation copathogens usually associated with actinomyces is not resolved, but most experts do not recom- A classiﬁcation system has been devised by mend the administration of additional antibiot- Reed. Patients with actinomycosis have a tendency ing to anatomic and morphologic patterns of to relapse, and prolonged therapy optimizes the airway dilatation as follows: (1) cylindrical bron- likelihood of a cure. However, small trials have chiectasis, in which there is uniform dilatation of shown success with relatively brief courses of the bronchi which are thick walled and extend therapy (6 weeks). In general, the etiolo- areas of constriction and dilatation similar in gies can be categorized as idiopathic, postinfectious, appearance to saphenous varicosities; (3) cystic or the result of an underlying anatomic or systemic bronchiectasis, which is the most severe form and disease. Previously, untreated infection and ﬂuid-ﬁlled cysts, with a honeycomb appear- was the leading cause of bronchiectasis, but with ance; and (4) follicular bronchiectasis, which has prompt treatment of infection, it is becoming much extensive lymphoid nodules and follicles within less common. Patients with focal ally occurs after the occurrence of childhood bronchiectasis, which is localized to a segment or pneumonia, measles, pertussis, or adenovirus lobe, should undergo bronchoscopy to evaluate for infection. Treatment with nary function tests may reveal an obstructive multiple antimicrobial agents may lead to the reso- ventilatory defect with hyperinﬂation and impaired lution of these abnormalities, but prolonged therapy diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been seen in up There are an increasing number of immune to 40% of patients with bronchiectasis in some deﬁciencies that have been associated with bron- series. Ciliary disorders are considered to be disease may present with a combined obstructive primary disorders of immune defense because and restrictive ventilatory defect.
In part this will only happen if people experience the difference in their lives that full health brings tadalis sx 20mg otc. And in part it can only happen if 222 The Transform ations of Medicine the public can be persuaded to limit their use of medical care to liberate the resources needed to pursue health generic 20mg tadalis sx with amex. But even if this were a plausible policy, it is still doubtful that people can be forced to be healthy. Conse- ^ quently, until and unless society places a higher value on health, we will be less healthy than we could be and we will be stuck with the medicine we have because we neither can afford a new medicine, nor tolerate a medicine that pro motes health rather than repairs the sick. We are on a high-technology-low-hum anism trajectory in health, but a shift is possible—a shift to a medicine with low technology and high humanism. Finally, there is the argum ent that the proposals are hopelessly utopian; they are overstated, and they fail to reflect an understanding o f how change occurs. T he argum ent can be broken into four parts: first, allegations that there is too m uch stress on individual re sponsibility, particularly since we know so little about dis ease; second, that the elimination of barriers to practice will result in charlatanism and quackery; third, that change will not occur without an appropriate strategy or game plan featuring increm ental steps and the use o f incentives; and fourth and Anally, that the changes proposed are impossible because they are too expensive. I have stressed the role o f the individual; I have even argued that it is param ount. Most of us panic at the onset of illness; our invariable reaction is to sum m on a physician and then give up. I have stressed the individual’s role in an effort to restore the individual’s proper role in health and “healthing. I have not argued that the individual must lie on a procrustean bed of illness and fight on alone. Medical care should be available, and there should be people who care, especially for those who have no rela tives and friends. But a balance must be struck, and in my view the scale is far too heavily weighted on the side of the healer. T he healer should do what is possible when aid is sought, but the individual must assume the ultimate respon sibility for his or her health. I have stressed the individual role because, based on everything I have come across in the preparation o f this book, the responsible individual is clearly the most im portant factor in achieving health. C er tainly Jerom e Frank’s work, to which I have repeatedly re ferred, is essentially in support. But another example can be found in the work of Lester Breslow and his colleagues, who surveyed the health behavior of about 7000 Californians for five and a half years. Although it is true that Californians may not be a representative sample (for health habits or anything else), the investigators established strong links be tween health habits, including regular sleep, weight m ainte nance, smoking and alcohol consum ption, and exercise and health. None of this is very shocking, but the im portance of the research is that adherence to health habits are the re 224 The Transform ations of Medicine sponsibility of the individual. As Breslow concludes, “We are reaching the point where individual responsibility is a highly im portant factor in determ ining good health. I have suggested that the professional stran glehold on the provision of services and health inform ation be broken. But since so many of the other reform s will founder unless professionalism is eroded, it is necessary to do so. T here will be some quack ery; it is unavoidable where money is to be m ade out of hum an suffering. But we also know that there are less conventional factors at work, factors that are unlikely to be assessed, or in some cases allowed into the healing equation in the first place. Some of these are the scale o f the facility in which care is rendered; the nature and behavior o f health personnel; the setting for care—home, outpatient, hospital; the powers of healing of those who claim to be healers; and the role o f the family and of the patient. Unless the barriers to practice are lowered to allow the interplay of new m ixtures of personnel and facilities and interpersonal interactions, these factors are un likely to be fully assessed. T he theories and practices on which contem porary medicine is premised are not the only ones. And there is evidence, some of which has been discussed, that these systems of medicine are effective. T he rigorous professionalization o f m odern medicine has succeeded in barring, or at least constraining practitioners employing alternative therapies and tech niques, such as acupuncture and chiropractic. T he opportu nity to learn from alternative practices should not be lost, The Obstacles 225 but will be if the prevailing barriers to practice remain. One example: Sister Justa Smith, a biochemist, has isolated a factor that may be associated with healing. Since her hypothesis is that enzyme activity is related to the healing process, she examined persons who claimed to be healers to determ ine w hether they could accelerate enzyme activity. Some of those who claim to be healers and appear to have had success in heal ing can dramatically elevate enzyme activity in controlled experim ents. First, as inform ation becomes available linking the processes o f care with patient outcomes, inform ation will be available to aid people in making choices about healers.
This broad spectrum antibiotic crosses Primidone produces abnormalities similar to Chloramphenicol the placenta generic tadalis sx 20mg line, chelates calcium and is deposited those produced by phenytoin discount tadalis sx 20mg fast delivery. The risk for any single drug is about 6–7% Chloramphenicol should be avoided in late thic agent effective in the treatment of ascaria- The effects on bone are minimal, but discolor- (i. The syndrome usually starts 2–9 a risk of 15%, and for those taking a combina- rats, and is therefore not recommended for use ing of the permanent teeth is most likely when days after therapy is begun and causes vom- tion of valproate, carbamazepine and phenyto- during pregnancy. Its use in pregnancy 10 times the recommended dose of 400μg/ The observation of limb reduction defects at should be confned to life-threatening condi- day for normal pregnant woman. A recent study examining the effect of Nitrofurantoin er anticonvulsants, it is diffcult to ascertain albendazole during pregnancy is not recom- intrauterine exposure to quinolones suggested the teratogenic risk of these agents in isola- mended. Two study group infants Vancomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic with a had anomalies (tetralogy of Fallot and con- The adrenal cortex synthesizes two classes inhibits placental microsomal aromatase and fetal ototoxic effect. Based on these data, the coids and mineralocorticoids) having 21 car- in some pregnant women without complica- synthesis in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Except Antiprotozoal drugs: antiamebic in patients receiving replacement therapy for and antimalarial drugs Quinine adrenal insuffciency, glucocorticoids are nei- Trimethoprim inhibits the reduction of dihy- ther specifc nor curative, but rather are con- drofolate to tetrahydrofolate and readily Metronidazole sidered palliative because of their anti-infam- Newer agents have effectively replaced qui- crosses the placenta appearing in measurable nine to treat malaria. The use of trimeth- Most of the published evidence now suggests teratogenic risk can be documented, its use Prednisolone is the biologically active form oprim in pregnancy was associated with an that metronidazole does not present a signif- during pregnancy should be avoided. A study of 229,101 patients was increased with use during the second and has been reported, but the validity and the exposed to prednisolone, prednisone and third months after the last menstrual period clinical signifcance of this fnding is question- Antituberculous drugs methyl-prednisolone during the frst trimes- but not before or after this time. Metronidazole is contraindicated during ter failed to show any association between to avoid trimethoprim in the frst trimester 17 the frst trimester in patients with trichomo- Rifampicin these agents and congenital defects. The American prednisolone was used throughout the preg- administration, if prescribed, must always be No controlled studies have linked the use of nancy, cataracts in the newborn occurred in College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists accompanied with folic acid. All concluded that rifampicin was not are advised to wait at least 4 hours after a dose The use of metronidazole for trichomoniasis a proven teratogen and recommended use of before nursing their infants. Griseofulvin or vaginosis during the second and third tri- the drug with isoniazid and ethambutol if nec- Betamethasone use for therapy of pre- mesters is acceptable, as either a single 2-g oral 14 essary. The American Academy of Pediatrics term labor is associated with decreases in Griseofulvin is a systemic agent used to treat dose or a 7-day course of 750–1000mg/day in considers rifampicin to be compatible with respiratory distress syndrome, periventricular fungal infections of the skin, hair and nails. Griseofulvin other alternatives with established safety pro- precipitate myasthenic crisis in patients with use is contraindicated during pregnancy, and fles are available. In these cases, the patient Ethambutol myasthenia gravis, induce hyperglycemia and pregnancy should be avoided for 1 month after should be counseled about the potential risks rarely a hypertensive crisis. Men should not try to father chil- and informed consent obtained before initiat- No congenital defects are linked to ethambu- betamethasone have no effects on the fetus, dren within 6 months of treatment. Follow-up studies information on breastfeeding while taking aza- tinued at least 3 months prior to conception older children had well developed social com- have not shown any differences in cognitive thioprine is without consensus. Hydrocortisone and rheumatologists advise avoidance of azathio- written language and arithmetic, a picture its inactive precursor cortisone present small prine if possible, or counsel against breast- reminiscent of the non-verbal learning dis- ability syndrome28. In conclusion, drug therapy of 24,25 Based on relatively small numbers, the use of The use of nitroglycerin during pregnancy cardiovascular rhythm disorders should be Although extensive data support no cyclosporine during pregnancy apparently does does not appear to present a risk to the fetus. Because which cyclosporine is indicated makes these to be suffcient to jeopardize placental perfu- Digoxin benefts of corticosteroids far outweigh fetal pregnancies high risk and subject to numer- sion. Nitroglycerin appears to be a safe, effec- risks, these agents should not be withheld if ous potential problems, of which the most tive, rapid-onset, short-acting tocolytic agent. It can reach the fetus by transplacental suppressing cell-mediated hypersensitiv- These drugs exert their effects mainly on rap- passage and induce fetal hypothyroidism. Use of idly dividing cells, and hence are most dan- inhibits the conversion of thyroxine to triiodo- azathioprine in pregnant patients with renal gerous at the stage of organogenesis. It may also inhibit Beta-adrenergic antagonists have fewer side- transplant, systemic lupus erythematosus and alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, caus- effects than most antihypertensives, but their infammatory bowel disease is extensive. When com- outcome of pregnancy, while others described risk of impaired fetal immunity, growth retar- genital abnormalities in cyclophosphamide- pared with controls, amiodarone-exposed a variety of fetal and neonatal complications29. In children followed exposed children ranges between 16 and toddlers showed expressive language skills The major concern is that if these drugs are for up to 20 years, no increase in congenital 22%, but its use may be contemplated later relatively poorer than their verbal skills27. Bendrofumethiazide, chlorthal- central nervous system abnormalities thought are within those expected in a non-exposed tensives for use in the third trimester. However, because the interrup- ment of hypertension is required before 28 are compatible with breastfeeding defects include dorsal midline dysplasia (agen- tion of cholesterol-lowering therapy during weeks, methyldopa should be the frst drug of Spironolactone is a competitive antagonist of esis of corpus callosum and Dandy-Walker pregnancy should have no apparent effect on choice. Spironolactone also exhibits antian- ception should ideally stop the therapy before recommendation that heparin be substituted drogenic effects, probably through competitive becoming pregnant and certainly on recogni- for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous This group of drugs are orally active inhibitors inhibition at the level of testosterone, dihy- tion of pregnancy. However, heparin is not of angiotensin converting enzyme, which is drotestosterone and androstenedione recep- during gestation, though, apparently has no as effective as warfarin in preventing arte- responsible for conversion of inactive angio- tors. The use of these drugs aldosteronism, where amiloride or potassium in the frst trimester is not thought to produce supplements may be alternatives in pregnancy. Two major side-effects that can occur androgen, used for the treatment of endo- Loop diuretics (furosemide) with heparin treatment are heparin-induced metriosis, menstrual disturbances, immune Warfarin is a form of coumarin with vitamin K thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis. Reports suggest virilization of the thrombocytopenia is associated with a mild Furosemide is considered safe in breastfeed- genital malformations and physical disability. Its use is not recommended in the treat- Exposure to the drug between the 6th and 9th to the drug during pregnancy producing fused days after heparin injection. However, the Collabor- defects (nasal hypoplasia and stippled epiphy- Simvastatin entirely the fetal effects of the contained pro- ative Perinatal Project6 found an increased risk ses), limb hypoplasia (particularly distal dig- gestogens and estrogens.