By O. Javier. University of Texas of the Permian Basin.
One study looked at what happened when women switched from the standard American diet (40% of calories from fat; only 12 g ﬁber per day) to a healthier diet (25% of calories from fat; 40 g ﬁber) generic avana 100 mg mastercard. That’s a good thing cheap avana 100mg otc, because when phytoestrogens occupy the receptors, estrogen can’t affect cells. By competing with estrogen, phytoestrogens cause a drop in estrogen effects, and are thus sometimes called antiestrogens. Great sources of phytoestrogens include soy and soy foods, ground ﬂaxseed, and nuts and seeds. These dietary recommendations have extreme signiﬁcance not only in treating uterine ﬁbroids but also in reducing endometrial cancer. Women with uterine ﬁbroids have a fourfold increase in the risk of endometrial cancer. In a case-control study of a multiethnic population (Japanese, white, Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese) examining the role of dietary soy, ﬁber, and related foods and nutrients in the risk of endometrial cancer, 332 women with endometrial cancer were compared with women in the general multiethnic population, and all women were interviewed by means of a dietary questionnaire. Similar reductions in risk were found for greater consumption of other sources of phytoestrogens, such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and seaweed. The researchers concluded that plant-based diets low in calories from fat, high in ﬁber, and rich in legumes (especially soybeans), whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. These dietary associations may explain at least in part the lower rates of uterine cancer in Asian countries than in the United States. Soy isoﬂavones appear to be selective in terms of the tissues in which they have an estrogenic effect and the tissues in which their effect is antiestrogenic. Soy phytoestrogens do not appear to have an estrogenic effect on the human uterus and may in fact help shrink uterine ﬁbroids due to an antiestrogenic effect. We recommend moderate but not excessive soy consumption in the range of 45 to 90 mg soy isoﬂavones per day. See the chapter “Menopause” for more information on the isoflavone content of soy foods. Nutritional Supplements Historically, naturopaths have used lipotropic factors such as inositol and choline to support the healthy detoxiﬁcation of estrogen. Lipotropic supplements usually are a combination of vitamins and herbs designed to support the liver’s function in removing fat, detoxifying the body’s wastes, detoxifying external harmful substances (pesticides, ﬂame retardants, plastics, etc. These lipotropic products vary in their formulations depending on the manufacturer, but they are all similar and are meant for the same uses. Many now contain anticancer phytonutrients found in vegetables from the brassica family, such as indole-3-carbinol, di-indoylmethane, and sulforaphane. Research has shown that these compounds help to break down cancer-causing forms of estrogens to nontoxic forms, making them especially important for women with uterine fibroids. However, their activity is certainly less than the effects of dietary phytoestrogens such as soy and ﬂax. Newer, nonsurgical techniques such as high-intensity focused ultrasound are also now available. In addition to causing physical discomfort and embarrassment, vaginitis is medically important for several reasons: (1) it may be a symptom of a more serious underlying problem, such as chronic inﬂammation of the cervix (cervicitis) or a sexually transmitted disease; (2) the infection may travel into the uterus and lead to pelvic inﬂammatory disease, a serious situation that can result in infertility due to scarring of the fallopian tubes; and (3) chronic vaginal infections are often the underlying cause of recurrent urinary tract infections because they serve as a reservoir of the infectious bacteria. Causes Vaginitis may be sexually transmitted or may arise from a disturbance to the delicate ecology of the healthy vagina. In many instances, vaginal infections involve an overgrowth of common organisms normally found in the vagina of many healthy women. In normal situations these microbes do not cause any problems, but when there is a disturbance in the vaginal environment a normally present microbe can overgrow and produce an infection. Factors inﬂuencing the vaginal environment include pH, tissue sugar (glycogen) content, blood sugar (glucose) level, presence of “friendly” organisms (particularly Lactobacillus acidophilus), natural ﬂushing action of vaginal secretions, presence of blood (menstruation), spermicides and lubricants, and presence of antibodies and other compounds in the vaginal secretions. These factors are, in turn, affected by such things as low immune function as a result of nutritional deﬁciencies, medications (e. In fact, vaginal yeast infections are three times more prevalent in women wearing panty hose than those wearing cotton underwear. Approximately 90% of cases of vulvovaginitis will be associated with one of three organisms, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, or Gardnerella vaginalis. The relative frequency of each form varies with the population studied, as well as with sexual activity levels. Less frequent causes of vaginitis include Neisseria gonorrhea, herpesvirus, and Chlamydia trachomatis. The preceding table summarizes the diagnostic differentiation of the most common causes of infectious vaginitis. Candida albicans The relative frequency and the total incidence of vaginal yeast infections (candidal vaginitis) have increased dramatically in the past 40 years. Several factors have contributed to this increased incidence, chief among them being the increased use of antibiotics. The problem with vaginal yeast infections as a result of antibiotic use is well known by virtually every woman. Most cases of recurrent candidal vaginitis are due either to transmission of candida from the gastrointestinal tract or to failure to recognize and treat the presence of one or more predisposing factors.
An opportunity thus arises to make the studies collabora tive cheap 100mg avana free shipping, especially when several centres may wish to investigate a common problem purchase 200mg avana fast delivery. Research at a regional level where laboratories with different levels of expertise and facility carry out aspects of the work within their present capacity would not only be more economical but would also provide incentive and opportunity for smaller laboratories to progress in this respect. Also, facilities may be inadequate where the problem exists and is acute, with ample clinical material for study; for example, in disorders of parasitic and bacterial origin, where an economical approach may be made by collaborative research between a developing laboratory and a more advanced one. Most third-world workers would be unable to overcome independently the formidable practical difficulties of such a scheme. An external agency providing support could, however, in certain circumstances, be able to arrange this. Recent trends in both these directions of collaborative studies and regional research programmes are much to be recommended and should be persisted with despite the practical problems. Attention has been constantly drawn to the advantages of greater interdependence and co-operation among third-world workers in several matters concerning the introduction and development of immunoassays. The value of this is being increasingly realized in the developing world in the entire field of science and technology, generally with workers being encouraged to exploit the potential available among themselves rather than look to the western expertise as first choice for a solution to problems. It remains to the workers of the developing world to translate this idea from the area of declared intent to that of existing reality. In conclusion, an attem pt has been made in this presentation to lay emphasis on problems met either at first hand, or by close contact rather than depending too heavily on ideas previously expressed by other authorities. Nevertheless, the special problems in establishing immunoassays in developing countries have been the subject of previous deliberations, the results of some of which are cited in the short Bibliography below. Workers directly affected as well as others interested in the field are referred to them, and although the views expressed, priorities identified, and solutions suggested may on occasion be at variance with what has been presented in the present instance, they would find in them constructive ideas and suggestions which may be applied to the solution of problems in the context of their own conditions. As regards the co-ordination of research on communicable diseases, it was his feeling that such co-ordination was most fruitful between laboratories in developing and advanced countries. Another speaker stressed the need for training in radioimmunoassay and related procedures at the technician level, in the language of the country or region. A third speaker commented that the development of science could not be separated from socio-economic and politico-economic development; lack of development in a particular scientific field was likely to be due to the lack of appropriate governmental policy rather than to the incompetence of scientists. Piyasena accepted that this might be true, though the picture varied widely from country to country. It was the duty of scientists, however, to make the right approaches in the right way to influence governments in the right direction. These methods will be most helpful for highly prevalent disease states in which rapid, low-cost diagnostic methods are not now available. The methods should be directed towards the detection of organism-specific antigens. The selection of appropriate antigens is of primary importance in the development of new methods. In the area of communicable diseases special consideration should be given to the immunochemical specificity of antigens, standardization of antigen preparations, validation of assay methods, and the safety of assay constituents and samples. The development of an assay which detects specific heat-altered tuberculoprotein may offer a rapid low-cost method for use in the diagnosis and management of active tuberculosis. A method which detects heat-altered antigen is dependent upon the antigen retaining its immunochemical species-specificity in the heat-altered state and allows for the decontamination of samples, the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes, and the dénaturation of endogenous antibody. In general, these methods have not as yet been well validated or subjected to extensive clinical trial. In the near future it may be possible to review the results obtained with these assays. Included among these are diseases caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoan and helminthic pathogens. The technology is uniquely adaptable to automation and, thus, permits the analysis of multiple samples at low cost and without the need for highly skilled technologists. Immunochemical approaches to the diagnosis of communicable diseases should generally be directed to the detection of organism- specific antigens rather than antibody. Antibody oriented methods are limited because infected individuals may fail to mount an anti body response, and because antibody responses may persist long after infection has been eradicated. The detection of organism- specific antigen in body fluids and tissues, however, may be consid ered to be prima facie evidence for the presence of infecting organisms. The major technical problem with respect to antigen oriented detection methods is the identification of appropriate organism- specific antigens. This may be particularly problematic for organ isms which are antigenically related to common non-pathogens, and for parasites which display extended antigenic life-cycle complexity. Other technical problems may relate to the presence of infective material and/or endogenous antibody in samples. Prior discussions of these procedures have generally concentrated on the measurement of hormones in serum or plasma.
As is evident in the table opposite trusted 50 mg avana, food allergies have been linked to many common symptoms and health conditions discount avana 100mg fast delivery. It is estimated that 6% of children and 4% of adults in America have IgE-mediated food allergies2 and that 20% of the population have altered their diet owing to adverse reactions to foods. The primary causes of the increased frequency of food allergy appear to be excessive regular consumption of a limited number of foods (often hidden as ingredients in commercially prepared foods) and the high level of preservatives, stabilizers, artiﬁcial colorings, and ﬂavorings now added to foods. For example, foods can easily become contaminated following the use of pesticides in farming. Other possible reasons for the increased occurrence of food allergy include earlier weaning and earlier introduction of solid foods to infants; genetic manipulation of plants, resulting in food components with greater allergenic properties; and impaired digestion (especially lack of hydrochloric acid and/or pancreatic enzymes). Finally, incomplete digestion and excessive permeability of the intestinal lining significantly contribute to the risk of becoming allergic to foods. When both parents have allergies, there is a 67% chance that the children will also have allergies. When only one parent is allergic, the chance that a child will be prone to allergies is still high but drops from 67 to 33%. The theory is that individuals with a tendency to develop food allergies have abnormalities in the number and ratios of special white blood cells known as T lymphocytes or T cells. Speciﬁcally, these individuals have nearly 50% more helper T cells than nonallergic persons. Individuals prone to food allergies have a lower allergic set point because they have more helper T cells in circulation. Therefore, the level of insult required to trigger an allergic response is lowered. The actual expression of an allergy can be triggered by a variety of stressors that can disrupt the immune system, such as physical or emotional trauma, excessive use of drugs, immunization reactions, frequent consumption of a specific food, and/or environmental toxins. Improper digestion and poor integrity of the intestinal barrier are other factors that can lead to the development of food allergy. When properly chewed and digested, 90% of ingested proteins are completely broken down and then absorbed as amino acids and small peptides. However, partially digested dietary proteins can cross the intestinal barrier and be absorbed into the bloodstream. These larger molecules can cause an allergic response that can occur either directly at the intestinal barrier, at distant sites, or throughout the body. People with food allergies often need supplements of hydrochloric acid and/or pancreatic enzymes (see the chapter “Digestion and Elimination”). Incompletely digested proteins can impair the immune system, leading to long-term allergies and frequent infections. This situation probably results from a stress-induced decrease in secretory IgA levels. IgA plays an important role in the lining of the mucosal membrane of the intestinal tract, where it helps protect against the entrance of foreign substances into the body. When there is a lack of IgA lining the intestines, the absorption of food allergens and microbial antigens increases dramatically. Even a relatively short-term IgA deﬁciency predisposes a person to the development of food allergy. People with food allergies typically have unusually low levels of IgA, making them particularly susceptible. The Immune System and Food Allergies Most food allergies are mediated by the immune system as a result of interactions between ingested food, the digestive tract, white blood cells, and food-speciﬁc antibodies such as IgE, IgG, and IgM. Food represents the largest antigenic challenge that confronts the human immune system, whether a person suffers from food allergies or not. When food antigens activate the immune system, white blood cells and antibodies cooperate in an immune response that, under certain circumstances, can have negative effects. IgE is involved primarily in the classic immediate reaction, while the others seem to be involved in delayed reactions, such as those seen in the cyclical type of food allergy (one that comes and goes). Although the function of the immune system is to protect a person from infections and cancer, abnormal immune responses can lead to tissue injury and disease; food allergy reactions are just one expression. Type I: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Type I reactions occur less than two hours after consumption of an allergenic food. This quick reaction makes it easy to identify the offending foods—getting hives after eating strawberries makes the connection obvious. Antigens bind to preformed IgE antibodies, which are attached to the surface of the mast cell or the basophil, and cause the release of mediators such as histamines and leukotrienes. A variety of allergic symptoms may result, depending on the location of the mast cell: in the nasal passages, this causes sinus congestion; in the bronchioles, constriction (asthma); in the skin, hives and eczema; in the synovial cells that line the joints, arthritis; in the intestinal mucosa, inﬂammation with resulting malabsorption and possibly diarrhea; and in the brain, headaches, loss of memory, and “spaciness. Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate type I reaction in which symptoms are usually limited to the lips and oral cavity. It occurs in sensitive individuals upon ingestion of proteins in pollens and raw fruits, nuts, or vegetables. Symptoms usually occur within ﬁve minutes of eating the food and commonly include itching, tingling, redness, and swelling of the lips, mouth, and throat. Cooked foods rarely induce the same response, because the protein shapes are changed when food is heated or digested.