By E. Javier. Fort Valley State University.

These two hormones cause the ovaries and the adrenal glands to secrete increased amounts of androgens (male sex hormones) generic 30 mg vytorin with visa, which can be converted to estrogens by the fat cells of the hips and thighs discount 30 mg vytorin with amex. Converted androgens account for most of the circulating estrogen in the postmenopausal woman, but total estrogen levels are still far below the levels in women still in their reproductive years. Major Symptoms Many of the symptoms of menopause, especially hot flashes, appear to be a result of altered function of the hypothalamus, a mass of tissue at the center of the brain that serves as the bridge between the nervous system and the hormonal (endocrine) system. The hypothalamus is responsible for the control of many body functions, including body temperature, metabolic rate, sleep patterns, reactions to stress, libido, mood, and the release of pituitary hormones. Critical to proper functioning of the hypothalamus are the endorphins, the body’s own mood-elevating and pain-relieving compounds. Several natural measures are thought to exert some of their beneficial effects against hot flashes by enhancing endorphin output. The term hot flash refers to dilation of the peripheral blood vessels, which leads to a rise in skin temperature and flushing of the skin. In the typical hot flash, the skin, especially of the head and neck, becomes red and warm for a few seconds to a few minutes, with cold chills coming thereafter. Hot flashes can be accompanied by other symptoms, including increased heart rate, headaches, dizziness, weight gain, fatigue, and insomnia. In the United States, 65 to 80% of women around menopause experience hot flashes to some degree. Hot flashes are often the first sign that menopause is approaching, as they may begin prior to the cessation of menses. In most cases, hot flashes are at their most uncomfortable in the first and second years after menopause. Headaches Headaches, especially migraines, often accompany menopause owing to increased instability of the blood vessels. Atrophic Vaginitis After menopause, the vaginal lining may become thin and dry owing to the lack of estrogen. As a result, menopausal and postmenopausal women may experience painful intercourse, an increased susceptibility to infection, and vaginal itching or burning. Women with atrophic vaginitis should try to avoid substances that tend to dry the mucous membranes, including antihistamines, alcohol, caffeine, and diuretics. Underwear made from natural fibers, particularly cotton, is often recommended, as it allows the skin to breathe, thus decreasing the incidence of vaginal infections. Regular sexual intercourse is also beneficial, as it increases blood flow to vaginal tissues; this blood flow helps improve tone and lubrication. However, good lubrication must be maintained; there are many oil- and water-based lubricants available, such as K-Y jelly. Bladder Infections About 15% of menopausal women experience frequent bladder infections. Apparently there is a breakdown in the natural defense mechanisms that protect against bacterial growth in the urinary tract. The primary goal in the natural approach to treating bladder infections is to enhance a woman’s normal resistance to urinary tract infection. Specifically, increase the flow of urine through proper hydration, promote a pH that will inhibit the growth of microorganisms, and prevent bacteria from adhering to the endothelial cells of the bladder. See the chapter “Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder” for further information. Cold Hands and Feet Cold hands and feet are common among women in general, not just menopausal women. In most instances, there are three major causes of cold hands and feet: hypothyroidism, low iron levels in the body, and poor circulation. It is important to rule out hypothyroidism by measuring blood levels of thyroid hormones. A complete physical exam is also required, with particular attention to any other signs of decreased blood flow. Forgetfulness and Inability to Concentrate Forgetfulness and an inability to concentrate are common symptoms of menopause. Often these symptoms are simply a result of decreased oxygen and nutrient supply to the brain, due not to menopause per se but rather to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) of the blood vessels supplying oxygen and nutrition to the brain. Although it weighs only 3 pounds, the brain utilizes about 20% of the oxygen supply of the entire body. To deal with symptoms of forgetfulness and inability to concentrate, the goal is to improve the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the brain. Menopause as a Social Construct While there is undeniably a physiological process involved in menopause, menopause is much more than simply a biological event. Modern society has placed great value on the allure of youth, resulting in a deeply entrenched cultural devaluation of older people, particularly women. Advocates of a social and cultural explanation of menopause often point to this cultural devaluing of older women as the root of the negativity associated with achieving menopause. In contrast, in many cultures of the world, women look forward to menopause because it brings with it greater respect. Studies of menopausal women in many traditional cultures demonstrate that most will pass through menopause without hot flashes, vaginitis, and other symptoms common to menopausal women in developed countries.

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Figure 4B represents P being the subject and E being the envi- ronment of three different categories of functioning cheap vytorin 20 mg mastercard. Figure 4C represents three different categories of person and environment characteristics discount vytorin 20 mg without prescription. The symbol −< indicates from left to right ‘has as components’; from right to left ‘are component of’. However, I argued above that functioning could be better specified if the subject is more precisely identified. So in corre- spondence with distinguishing three different categories of functioning, three different categories of person characteristics can be identified in ac- cordance with the functioning with which they seem to have their main relation (Figure 4C). In Figure 5, the three groups of person characteristics and environ- ment characteristics are named. In addition it shows arrows in the right upper corner that represent intra-personal relations, i. The symbol −< indicates from left to right ‘has as components’; from right to left ‘are component of’. In table 5, examples are given of characteristics of person and envi- ronment, grouped according to the three levels of functioning. The method of measurement of these characteristics will depend on the nature of the characteristic. Assessment will usually regard the influence by these characteristics on functioning or rather on the change in functioning. But equally relevant is the influence of the change in functioning on person and environment. Examples of characteristics of person and environment, corresponding with three levels of momentary functioning. It is associated with roles and with pursuits of particular goals or aspirations (26,27). For the prac- tice of rehabilitation, one could for example distinguish short-term pur- suits (of short-term aspirations), long-term pursuits (of long-term aspira- tions), and, ultimately, meaningful living (in pursuit of a sense of mean- ingfulness). Ongoing functioning can not be observed as it largely takes place in future or past. However, at a given moment in time (grey arrow pointing upwards), an intentional activity that forms part of a pursuit can be observed, together with the aspirations corresponding with the pursuit (grey arrows pointing down). But as the greatest part of a pursuit is in the future or in the past, the term ‘re- al’ does not indicate that pursuits are observable, but just that they are re- alistic or feasible. I propose the following description: A function can be designated a pursuit – if it is composed of consecutive (sets of) intentional activities, and – if this series of intentional activities has a common purpose or aspi- ration, and – if the purposes of such series of intentional activities, i. Domains Long-term pursuits1 Short-term pursuits1 Vocation Earning a living … by building a house by making and selling cloths Becoming an expert by gaining experience as or experienced worker … a psychologist by being a dedicated policeman Showing commitment to a job by supplying furniture, Serving an interest of people other goods or company … Education Schooling … by attending primary education Studying a subject … by attending a course Learning to become an skilled by gaining experience craftsman … in shoemaking House keeping Keeping a household running by routine cleaning activities by regularly providing meals by regular maintenance Leisure Maintaining friendship … by an understanding attitude Become expert / skilled … by weekly training in sports such as soccer Mastering a subject / skill … by attending a course in painting Partnership Maintaining partner relation … by regularly sharing experiences and emotions by keeping social contacts together by sharing leisure activities by enjoying and maintaining a sexual relationship Parenthood Raising children … by providing an example in something by guiding a child’s interest 1The terms for the pursuits imply the corresponding aspirations. Pursuits relevant with- in rehabilitation are for example: following education; earning a living; maintaining a relationship; raising children. Outcomes of measurement of pursuits could regard the attainment of the corresponding aspiration. Even if a person has real potential to pursue a particular aspiration, there still could be incompatibility with as- pirations of other persons. Assessment of pursuits could also be related to the choices a person makes with regard to means and ways of pursuing. Some changes may reflect aspirations themselves, such as im- proving physical condition, or getting better from an illness. Other changes are conditions for achieving an aspiration, for example development, growth, and learning. Characteristics of the environment may also change over time, for example, the socio-economic situation, the political situation, developments in the family or in the community. For assessment of pursuits, estimates may be needed of these changes of person and environment. Examples of person and environment characteristics corresponding with ongoing functioning. Aspirations can be divided in short-term aspirations, long-term aspirations, and sense of meaningful living. Graphical representation of aspirations as person characteristics, and of a hi- erarchy of functioning they are part of. The lower purposes in the hierarchy are the observ- able functions and activities. The symbol −< indicates reading from left to right ‘has as components’; from right to left ‘are component of’. Adaptation is a process of getting better; the process of getting better determines prognosis; prognosis determines the need for assistance. A particular in- stance of the person-environment relationship is the specific person-envi- ronment encounter (18), or in other words, a particular functioning. Both environmental and personal variables influence appraisal (18) (p 87), but the person is the one who appraises. It relates to a person charac- teristic1 goal hierarchy, that provides the individual with a basis for what is considered most or least harmful or beneficial (18) (p 94).

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However vytorin 20 mg fast delivery, ethyl acetate extract more rapidly discharged the purple background when compared to that of pet-ether extract showing much higher anti-oxidant potency discount vytorin 30mg with amex. Chromatographic separation of active ethyl acetate extracts yielded three curcuminoids, namely curcumin (5. Isolated curcumin, thymoquinone, kaempferol, quercetin and the beter-diketone were found to show bactericidal activity. These plant extracts were tested for antibacterial activity on 18 bacterial organisms. The test organisms include five species of Shigella, three species of Vibrio and one species of each of Klebsiella, Plesiomonas, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It was investigated that the plant of Phyllanthus niruri with ethanolic, 50% ethanolic and watery extracts were active on one strain of Sr. The percentage activity of the three extracts and the number of bacteria tested were 7. It was found that the watery extract of Phyllantus niruri possessed the highest antibacterial activity. The three different extracts of Piper nigrum seed had no activity on the tested bacteria. The ethanolic, 50% ethanolic and watery extract of Terminalia chebula fruit was active on three strains (23. This research deals with the study on the morphological characters of the plant and anatomical characteristies of the leaf, the stem, the barks and the root. The species being medically important for its possession of anthraquinone compounds; chemical extractions are carried out for naphthoquinone (Lawsone) tannin as gallic acid and xathone. Crude extraction is made using water, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and chloroform and petroleum ether to study the pharmacological activity. The extracts were tested against 13 pathogenic bacteria, comprising 2 strains of Proteus, 2 strains of Staphylococcus, 4 strains of Shigella, 1 strain each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera Eltor. The effectiveness of the extracts was shown on eleven species of bacteria and test on Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic organism for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery showed positive results. Study of disease morbidity and drug dispensing patterns on patients utilizing traditional medical care at the Traditional Medicine Centers in Yangon and Mandalay. Thaw Zin; Thaung Hla; Nwe Nwe Win; Win Kyi; Kyin Thein; Aye Lwin; Soe Moe; Mya Bwin; Aung Naing; Thein Hlaing; Hla Pe. With the purpose of narrowing the gap in health service coverage between urban and areas, the National Health Plan in Myanmar envisaged the development and involvement of traditional medicine in the support of the primary health care. For the delivery of the traditional medical care to effectively support the National Health Plan, the first step is the development of a list of essential drugs which will offer the widest possible coverage of the prevalent morbidity effecting the population. This study was conducted with the aim to identify the prevalent morbidity pattern encountered in traditional medical care and the drugs most needed to treat which ailment, to study the drug dispensing patterns and to find out the rationale behind such prescribing, and finally, to develop a common treatment schedule for the diseases identified above so as to get as overview of the cost of the traditional medical care. The records and charts of all patients who attended the traditional medicine hospital and dispensaries in Yangon and Mandalay during the specified months, namely January, April and July, 1991 as well as the total amount of drugs used for various st st illnesses for one year (1 September, 1990 to 31 August, 1991) were studied. The amount of drug used in the record was compared with the total amount of drugs that would be needed according to the common treatment schedule which was developed through interview and discussion of 19 well-experienced traditional medicine physicians. The association between seasonal variation and disease morbidity, and subsequent drug dispensing pattern, as well as the cost and rationale behind drug use was discussed. Diabetes mellitus is one of the dreadful diseases threatening the health of people in Myanmar. So that synthetic medicines are substituted by traditional medicine with the least side effect. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were extracted from the air dried seed shell powder of C. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, resins and polyphenol were present in crude powder and the extracts of C. Statistical analysis (Student’s‘t’ test) was applied in comparing the hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract and ethanolic extract of C. It was observed that aqueous extract of the seed shell produced a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 2hours (p<0. The ethanolic extract of it also produced a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 1hour (p<0. May Aye Than; Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Kyi Kyi Myint; San San Myint; Tin Nu Swe. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the two of the six major priority diseases in Myanmar and it now stands prioritized health problem and leading cause of death. But so far, there has not been full and systematic exploitation of these natural resources with regard to hypotensive and hypoglycemic effect. Thus, the experimental design using anaesthetized normotensive dogs for hypotensive activity was tested on glucose loaded hypoglycemic rabbit model. High and medium dose levels of the extracts produced significantly fall of mean systolic blood pressure (p<0. May Aye Than; Sandar Moe; Aye Than; Yee Yee Tin; Maung Maung Htay; Hla Myint, Saw; Hnin Pwint Aung; Moe Thida. Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

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